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      Activities: Additional Instruction and Practice

      These activities may be useful for students who require additional instruction and practice.

      Connecting Enlightenment Thinkers to Revolution and Change

      Have students consider some of the philosophers or thinkers that you studied and the revolutionary ideas that they put forth:

      • Hobbes -- People are naturally cruel and selfish. Without strict controls from a powerful government, people would fight, rob and oppress one another.
      • Locke -- If a government violates people's natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow that government.
      • Rousseau -- The good of the community as a whole should be placed above individual interests.

      Students can connect the thinking of these philosophers with some of the changes that occurred in government structures during the 18th and 19th centuries. Students can explain how each philosopher's thinking had an impact on events like the American Revolution and creation of the U.S. Constitution, the French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

      For each event, students can draw conclusions by asking:

      • What does the thinking of Rousseau, Locke or Hobbes suggest is necessary in a government?
      • What made the existing government intolerable according to the philosophies of Rousseau, Locke or Hobbes?
      • How did each nation use the philosophy of Rousseau, Locke or Hobbes to inform the creation of new forms of government?

      Students can write up their ideas in an essay or present their ideas to the class in an oral presentation.

      Create a Presentation on the Effects of Industrialization

      Students have learned that industrialization transformed the agricultural, rural-based lifestyle that people lived into one that was more mechanized and urban-based. They learned about different social, political and economic effects of industrialization. Have students create presentations for their classmates in which they explain what they learned about the impact of industrialization.

      Divide the class into groups and give each group an assignment: Each group must present on the social effects of industrialization, the political effects of industrialization, or the economic effects of industrialization. Have each group determine if they will focus on the European or American industrialization process.

      Groups assigned to explain the social effects of industrialization can consider:

      • How did people's lives change when they moved to urban environments?
      • What was housing like in the cities?
      • How much contact did people have with each other?
      • How did people organize their time? What did they do with their free time?
      • How did women's responsibilities change?
      • How did the lives of children change?
      • What were the social class distinctions that resulted from industrialization?
      • How did these social classes interact with each other?
      • What demographic changes resulted from industrialization?
      • What was the impact on marriage/divorce rates?
      • What happened to life expectancy rates as a result of industrialization?
      • Was the average worker better off after the industrial revolution?

      Groups assigned to explain the economic effects of industrialization can consider:

      • How did people get what they needed in order to survive?
      • Who profited during industrialization?
      • How were profits made?
      • How was the nature of work controlled?
      • Who made up the workforce?
      • What were the risks involved in working in factories? Which workers faced the greatest risks?
      • How were individuals able to improve their economic conditions?
      • What happened to real wages as a result of industrialization?
      • How did industrialization create conditions in the U.S. that allowed for the development of corporations and monopolies?
      • What led workers to organize into labor unions?
      • What power did labor unions come to have in the political arena?
      • How did labor unions affect the makeup and role of political parties?
      • What was the relative success of labor unions in achieving their goals?

      Groups assigned to explain the political effects of industrialization can consider:

      • What was the relationship between the US government and labor unions?
      • How did politicians adjust priorities to meet the needs of the changing populace?
      • What political policies came about during industrialization?
      • How did immigration affect the makeup and role of political parties?
      • What were the connections between changes in U.S. society caused by industrialization and the rise of new political reformers and new political parties in the late 19th century?
      Outline the Goals and Impact of the Protest Movements of the 1960s and 1970s

      What causes do students think are worthy of fighting for? In order for students to understand the impact of the protest movements that arose in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, students can consider how these protests developed into movements and the changes that they brought about. Students can use the chart below to organize their thinking:

      Protest Movement What were they protesting?What did they hope to gain? What methods of protest did they use?What were the successes and achievements of the movement? What was the legacy of the movement? (How has the movement remained active or appeared in other forms since its creation?)
      Antiwar protest during the Vietnam War      
      The Counterculture Movement     
      The women's liberation movement     

      Students can reflect and draw conclusions:

      • How is life today different because of the impact of these protest movements?
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