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High School — Science
Scientific Ways of Knowing

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    Scientific Ways of Knowing

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      Overview: Talking with Teachers about Scientific Ways of Knowing

      In this standard, students learn that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.

      The content in this Teaching Tool is based on the benchmarks defined in the Ohio Science Academic Content Standards with an awareness of the types of questions asked to this point in time on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). While various suggestions and activities for working with students are included, this Teaching Tool is designed to complement a rigorous, research-based curriculum, not to substitute for one.

      Additional Sources

      American Association for the Advancement of Science. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 1993.

      American Association for the Advancement of Science. Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Driver, Rosalind, et al. Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children's Ideas. New York: Routledge, 1994.

      Hazen, Robert M. and James Trefil. Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy. New York: Anchor Books, 1992.

      National Academy of Sciences. National Science Education Standards. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press, 1995.

      National Research Council. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Technology Academic Content Standards. Ohio Department of Education. 2006.

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