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High School — Science
Science and Technology

Students recognize that science and technology are interconnected and that using technology involves assessment of the benefits, risks and costs. Students should build scientific and technological knowledge, as well as the skill to design and construct devices. In addition, they should develop the processes to solve problems, and understand that problems may be solved in several ways.

Students learn that the interaction between society and technology has an impact on their lives, economy, ethical standards, environment and culture. They also learn that technology may have unintended consequences which may be helpful or harmful. Students evaluate the impact of products or systems by gathering and synthesizing information, analyzing trends and drawing conclusions. Students analyze technological issues and the implications of using technology (Technology Academic Content Standards: Technology and Society Interaction, Standard 2).

Students become information-literate learners by utilizing a research process model. They recognize the need for information and define the problem, need or task. Students understand the structure of information systems and apply these concepts in acquiring and managing information. Relevant information is selected, analyzed and synthesized to generate a finished product (Technology Academic Content Standards: Technology and Information Literacy, Standard 5).

Students learn that humans have made modifications to the natural world to satisfy their own needs and wants. Students understand how, through the design process, the resources: materials, tools and machines, information, energy, capital, time and people are used in the development of products and systems. Students identify and assess the historical, cultural, environmental, governmental and economic impacts of technological systems in the designed world (Technology Academic Content Standards: Designed World, Standard 7).

The content in this Teaching Tool is based on the OH Science Academic Content Standards and is mindful of the types of questions asked to date on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). While there are various suggestions and activities for working with students, this Teaching Tool is designed to complement a rigorous, research-based curriculum, not to substitute for one.

Additional Sources

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Oxford University Press, 1993.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Driver, Rosalind, et al. Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children's Ideas. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Hazen, Robert M. and James Trefil. Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy. New York: Anchor Books, 1992.

National Academy of Sciences. National Science Education Standards. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press, 1995.

National Research Council. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2006.

Technology Academic Content Standards . Ohio Department of Education. 2006.



Science and Technology


1. Science and Technology

Click on the following benchmark for more information and for links to annotated OGT items.

a.

Benchmark A: Explain the ways in which the processes of technological design respond to the needs of society.
b.

Benchmark B: Explain that science and technology are interdependent; each drives the other.

 



Strategies

Help With Fundamentals

Students who have performed at the Basic or Limited level on the OGT may need help with fundamentals. Students with Basic level performance demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of concepts, processes and relationships underlying natural phenomena. Students with Limited level performance typically demonstrate skills and understanding below Basic level. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

Carefully monitor your students' work and analyze your curriculum to anticipate such problems as that described below.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.



Additional Instruction and Practice

Students who have performed at the Accelerated or Proficient level on the OGT may benefit from additional instruction and practice. Students with Accelerated level performance typically demonstrate solid science knowledge and reasoning abilities. Students with Proficient level performance typically recognize and explain concepts, processes and relationships underlying natural phenomena. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

If your students need additional instruction and practice, consult with your colleagues and examine your curriculum for activities that address the performance indicators. Supplement your instruction by having your students make models, draw pictures, do kinesthetic activities and use graphic organizers. Here are some examples of additional activities you might want to try.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.

Activity 1

Using Wind Tunnels

Click here * for "Science is a Breeze: Using Wind Tunnels", a lesson in which students design and analyze a wind tunnel system for investigating drag on various objects. Students will explain why scientists use wind tunnels to continually assess aircraft design as well as test and refine ideas about aircraft design (Science and Technology, Benchmark A). Students will also participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigations to test the performance of various objects in wind tunnels (Scientific Inquiry, Benchmark A). This activity contributes to student understanding of the ways in which frictional forces constrain the motion of aircraft in flight (Physical Sciences, Benchmark D).

Activity 2

DNA Chips

Click here * for "DNA Chips: A Laboratory in the Palm of Your Hand". This online article highlights a technological advance in the field of genetics, including its development and social impact. Students may apply knowledge from this article to cite an example of how technology is driven by the need to solve human problems. They should also describe how DNA chip technology may affect society (Science and Technology, Benchmark B). This article also contains a career profile of a molecular biologist, which may promote investigation of how knowledge and skills learned in life science class can apply to future careers (Scientific Ways of Knowing, Benchmark D). The skills in this activity support student understanding of the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance (Life Sciences, Benchmark C).

*This link contains resources or information that may be useful. These resources were not written to align specifically to Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The inclusion of a specific resource is not an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.



Advanced Work

Students with Advanced level performance consistently demonstrate superior knowledge and ability to integrate understanding of scientific principles. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

Talk to your colleagues and use your curriculum to come up with activities and problems that go beyond the grade-level indicators. Here is an idea you might try.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.



Water Everywhere

Students are expected to describe means of comparing the benefits with the risks of technology and how science can inform public policy (Science and Technology, Benchmark B). This includes demonstrating an understanding of how decisions about the implementation of technology involve assessing benefits and risks on the environment and on humans.

Click here * for "Water, Water Everywhere?", a lesson plan in which students work in teams to research data related to local water usage and potential sources of contamination, Students then make recommendations to the local government regarding disposal or industrial waste, and announcements to the general public regarding the use of bottled water, filters and lawncare. This activity includes student understanding of how changes in technology can cause significant changes, either positive or negative, in environmental quality (Life Sciences, Benchmark G).

*This link contains resources or information that may be useful. These resources were not written to align specifically to Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The inclusion of a specific resource is not an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.