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High School — Science
Scientific Ways of Knowing

In this standard, students learn that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.

The content in this Teaching Tool is based on the benchmarks defined in the Ohio Science Academic Content Standards with an awareness of the types of questions asked to this point in time on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). While various suggestions and activities for working with students are included, this Teaching Tool is designed to complement a rigorous, research-based curriculum, not to substitute for one.

Additional Sources

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 1993.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Driver, Rosalind, et al. Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children's Ideas. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Hazen, Robert M. and James Trefil. Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy. New York: Anchor Books, 1992.

National Academy of Sciences. National Science Education Standards. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press, 1995.

National Research Council. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2006.

Technology Academic Content Standards . Ohio Department of Education. 2006.



Scientific Ways of Knowing


1. Scientific Ways of Knowing

Click on the following benchmark for more information and for links to annotated OGT items.

a.

Benchmark A: Explain that scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world.
b.

Benchmark B: Explain how scientific inquiry is guided by knowledge, observations, ideas and questions.
c.

Benchmark C: Describe the ethical practices and guidelines in which science operates.
d.

Benchmark D: Recognize that scientific literacy is part of being a knowledgeable citizen.

 



Strategies

Help With Fundamentals

Student who have performed at the Basic or Limited level on the OGT may need help with fundamentals. Students with Basic level performance demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of concepts, processes and relationships underlying natural phenomena. Students with Limited level performance typically demonstrate skills and understanding below Basic level performance. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

Listed here is a common difficulty students might have in this standard. Carefully monitor your students' work and analyze your curriculum to anticipate such problems.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.



Additional Instruction and Practice

Students who have performed at the Accelerated or Proficient level on the OGT may benefit from additional instruction and practice. Students with Accelerated level performance typically demonstrate solid knowledge and reasoning abilities in the sciences. Students with Proficient level performance typically recognize and explain concepts, processes and relationships underlying natural phenomena. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

If your students need additional instruction and practice, consult with your colleagues and examine your curriculum for activities that address the performance indicators. Supplement your instruction by having your students make models, draw pictures, do kinesthetic activities and use graphic organizers. Here are some examples of additional activities you might want to try.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.

Activity 1

Genetics Timeline

Click here * for a student-friendly timeline from DNA Interactive that charts the development of scientific knowledge relevant to the field of genetics .

Students may use information from this Web site and related online and print resources to trace how scientific understanding of DNA has changed over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge (Scientific Ways of Knowing, Benchmark B). Using additional information from these resources, students should also justify how past and present theories about DNA are explanations of observations that withstand repeated testing. Students may present their findings to the class. Skills in this lesson also address student understanding of the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance (Life Sciences, Benchmark C).

Activity 2

Becoming a Scientist

Click here* for "Becoming a Scientist," a series of videos from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in which biomedical researchers describe what qualities one needs to be successful in biomedical research. Students should discuss what they believe are the essential qualities of a scientific researcher and compare their answers with those of the speakers.

Students should be able to illustrate that much can be learned from the study of scientists and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge (Scientific Ways of Knowing, Benchmark D). They also should explain how scientific inquiry is guided by knowledge, observations, ideas and questions (Scientific Ways of Knowing, Benchmark B).

*This link contains resources or information that may be useful. These resources were not written to align specifically to Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The inclusion of a specific resource is not an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.



Advanced Work

Students with Advanced level performance consistently demonstrate superior knowledge and ability to integrate understanding of scientific principles. Click here for a complete description of student performance levels.

Consult with your colleagues and examine your curriculum to come up with activities and problems that go beyond the grade-level indicators. Here is one activity you might try.

Please take proper safety precautions during any laboratory investigation.



Create a Rainforest Refuge

In Grades 9-10, students are expected to explain how societal issues and considerations affect the progress of science and technology (Science and Technology, Benchmark A). This includes describing costs and trade-offs of various hazards--ranging from minor risks to major catastrophes.

Click here * for "Create a Rainforest Refuge," a lesson in which students consider both economic and environment issues as they plan the development of a rainforest refuge. Students should be aware of how benefits and costs include long-term, short-term, indirect and direct consequences. Students may also describe how science can inform public policy, including environmental protection strategies and conservation of native species (Science and Technology, Benchmark B).

*This link contains resources or information that may be useful. These resources were not written to align specifically to Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The inclusion of a specific resource is not an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.