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      Strategies: Advanced Work

      The following activities are suggestions for working with students who are ready for advanced work. We hope that the activities spark ideas and conversations among teachers about useful classroom strategies that can supplement existing curriculum.

      Atom Arrangement

      Students should be able to describe identifiable physical properties of substances (e.g., color, hardness, conductivity, density, concentration and ductility) (Physical Sciences, Benchmark B).

      Click here* for "Carbon: Structure Matters," a lesson from Science NetLinks for students to explore the molecular structure and physical characteristics of different arrangements of carbon.

      Below is an example of a formative assessment question that may accompany this lesson.


      Graphite and diamond are both made of carbon atoms. Explain how these two substances differ in terms of the arrangement of carbon atoms in each substance.


      In diamond, each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement resulting in a three-dimensional cube-like network. Graphite on the other hand is composed of loosely bonded, flat layers in which each carbon atom is joined to three others in a triangular arrangement.


      Students may also describe how the differences in these arrangements contribute to the different physical properties of graphite (e.g., softness) and diamond (e.g., hardness).

      *This link contains resources or information that may be useful. These resources were not written to align specifically to Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The inclusion of a specific resource is not an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

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